1 Gozil

Critical Thinking Index

The purpose of assessment in instruction is improvement. The purpose of assessing instruction for critical thinking is improving the teaching of discipline based thinking (historical, biological, sociological, mathematical thinking…). It is to improve students’ abilities to think their way through content, using disciplined skill in reasoning. The more particular we can be about what we want students to learn about critical thinking, the better can we devise instruction with that particular end in view.

For deeper understanding of the relationship between critical thinking assessment and instruction, read the white paper on consequential validity by Richard Paul and Linda Elder:

The Foundation for Critical Thinking offers assessment instruments which share in the same general goal: to enable educators to gather evidence relevant to determining the extent to which instruction is teaching students to think critically (in the process of learning content).

To this end, the fellows of the Foundation recommend:

  1. that academic institutions and units establish an oversight committee for critical thinking
     
  2. that this oversight committee utilize a combination of assessment instruments (the more the better) to generate incentives for faculty (by providing the faculty with as much evidence as feasible of the actual state of instruction for critical thinking).

The following instruments are available to generate evidence relevant to critical thinking teaching and learning:

  1. Course Evaluation Form: provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, students perceive faculty as fostering critical thinking in instruction (course by course). Machine scoreable.
  2. Critical Thinking Subtest: Analytic Reasoning: provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, students are able to reason analytically. Machine scoreable (currently being developed).
  3. Critical Thinking: Concepts and Understandings: provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, students understand the fundamental concepts embedded in critical thinking (and hence tests student readiness to think critically). Machine scoreable
  4. Fair-mindedness Test: provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, students can reason effectively between conflicting view points (and hence tests student ability to identify strong and weak arguments for conflicting positions in reasoning). Machine scoreable. (currently being developed).
  5.  Critical Thinking Reading and Writing Test: Provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, students can read closely and write substantively (and hence tests student ability to read and write critically). Short Answer.
  6. International Critical Thinking Test: provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, students are able to analyze and assess excerpts from textbooks or professional writing. Short Answer.
  7. Commission Study Protocol for Interviewing Faculty Regarding Critical Thinking: provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, critical thinking is being taught at a college or university (Can be adapted for High School). Based on the California Commission Study. Short Answer.
  8. Foundation for Critical Thinking Protocol for Interviewing Faculty Regarding Critical Thinking: provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, critical thinking is being taught at a college or university (Can be adapted for High School). Short Answer
  9. Foundation for Critical Thinking Protocol for Interviewing Students Regarding Critical Thinking: provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, students are learning to think critically at a college or university (Can be adapted for High School). Short Answer. 
  10. Criteria for critical thinking assignments.  Can be used by faculty in designing classroom assignments or by administrators in assessing the extent to which faculty are fostering critical thinking.
  11. Rubrics for assessing student reasoning abilities. A useful tool in assessing the extent to which students are reasoning well through course content.  

All of the above assessment instruments can be used as part of pre- and post- assessment strategies to gauge development over various time periods.

{"id":"400","title":"","author":"","content":"<!--- \r\n<table width=\"200\" height=\"299\" cellspacing=\"1\" cellpadding=\"3\" border=\"0\" bgcolor=\"navy\" align=\"right\" summary=\"\">\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr bgcolor=\"white\">\r\n<td valign=\"top\" style=\"background-image: url(http://www.criticalthinking.org/image/pimage/Testing-pencil1.jpg); background-repeat: no-repeat;\" _mce_style=\"background-image: url(http://www.criticalthinking.org/image/pimage/Testing-pencil1.jpg); background-repeat: no-repeat;\">\r\n<div align=\"center\"><font color=\"#ffffff\"><b>National Academy on </b></font><font ><br /> </font> <font color=\"#ffffff\"><b>Critical Thinking</b></font><br /> <font color=\"#000066\"><b>Testing and Assessment</b></font></div>\r\n<br /> <br />\r\n<div align=\"center\"><font ><b>How Can We Best Test and Assess Critical Thinking?</b></font><br /> <br /> <br /> <font ><b>A Three-Day Academy<br /> <font color=\"#808080\"><font color=\"#993300\"> September 11-13, 2007<br /> **this event has ended**</font><br /> </font></b></font><font color=\"#0000ff\"><b> <br /> <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/conference/Testing-Assessment.cfm\" _mce_href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/conference/Testing-Assessment.cfm\" style=\"; font-weight: bold;\" _mce_style=\"font-weight: bold;\"><b>Click to Read More...</b></a><br /> <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/store-page.cfm?PageID=630&CategoryID=1&P=conference&itemID=266\" _mce_href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/store-page.cfm?PageID=630&amp;CategoryID=1&amp;P=conference&amp;itemID=266\" style=\"; font-weight: bold;\" _mce_style=\"font-weight: bold;\"><b><br /> </b></a> </b></font></div>\r\n</td>\r\n</tr>\r\n</tbody>\r\n</table>\r\n--->\r\n<p><span><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/assessment/machine_test.cfm\"><img src=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/image/pimage/CT_Test_onlineAd.jpg\" alt=\"Critical ThinkingBasic Understandings Online Test\" hspace=\"5\" align=\"right\" /></a></span><span>The purpose of assessment in instruction is improvement. The purpose of assessing instruction for critical thinking is improving the teaching of discipline based thinking (historical, biological, sociological, mathematical thinking&hellip;). It is to improve students&rsquo; abilities to think their way through content, using disciplined skill in reasoning. The more particular we can be about what we want students to learn about critical thinking, the better can we devise instruction with that particular end in view.</span></p>\r\n<p><span>For deeper understanding of the relationship between critical thinking assessment and instruction, read the white paper on consequential validity by Richard Paul and Linda Elder:</span></p>\r\n<ul>\r\n<li><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/files/White%20PaperAssessmentSept2007.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"><strong><span>Consequential Validity: Using Assessment to Drive Instruction</span></strong></a></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n<p><span>The Foundation for Critical Thinking offers assessment instruments which share in the same general goal: to enable educators to gather evidence relevant to determining the extent to which instruction is teaching students to think critically (in the process of learning content). </span><br /> <span><br /> To this end, the fellows of the Foundation recommend:</span></p>\r\n<ol>\r\n<li><span>that academic institutions and units establish an oversight committee for critical thinking<br /> &nbsp;</span></li>\r\n<li><span>that this oversight committee utilize a combination of assessment instruments (the more the better) to generate incentives for faculty (by providing the faculty with as much evidence as feasible of the actual state of instruction for critical thinking).<br /> <br /> </span></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n<p><span><span style=\"color: #000099;\"><strong>The following instruments are available to generate evidence relevant to critical thinking teaching and learning:</strong></span></span></p>\r\n<ol type=\"1\">\r\n<li><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/files/Course_Evaluation_Form.doc\"><strong>Course Evaluation Form:</strong></a> provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, students perceive faculty as fostering critical thinking in instruction (course by course).&nbsp;Machine scoreable.</li>\r\n<li><strong>Critical Thinking Subtest: Analytic Reasoning:</strong> provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, students are able to reason analytically. Machine scoreable (currently being developed).</li>\r\n<li><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/online-critical-thinking-basic-concepts-test/679\"><strong>Critical Thinking: Concepts and Understandings:</strong></a> provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, students understand the fundamental concepts embedded in critical thinking (and hence tests student readiness to think critically).&nbsp;Machine scoreable</li>\r\n<li><strong>Fair-mindedness Test:</strong>&nbsp;provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, students can reason effectively between conflicting view points (and hence tests student ability to identify strong and weak arguments for conflicting positions in reasoning).&nbsp;Machine scoreable. (currently being developed).</li>\r\n<li>&nbsp;<a style=\"font-weight: bold;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/store/products/the-international-critical-thinking-reading-and-writing-test/257\">Critical Thinking Reading and Writing Test:</a> Provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, students can read closely and write substantively (and hence tests student ability to read and write critically).&nbsp;Short Answer.</li>\r\n<li><a style=\"font-weight: bold;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/assessment/ICAT-info.cfm\">International Critical Thinking Test:</a> provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, students are able to analyze and assess excerpts from textbooks or professional writing.&nbsp;Short Answer.</li>\r\n<li><strong><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/files/Commission%20Study%20Appendix.PDF\">Commission Study Protocol for Interviewing Faculty Regarding Critical Thinking</a>: </strong>provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, critical thinking is being taught at a college or university (Can be adapted for High School).&nbsp;Based on the <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/store/products/california-teacher-preparation-for-instruction-in-critical-thinking/147\">California Commission Study</a>.&nbsp;Short Answer.</li>\r\n<li><strong>Foundation for Critical Thinking <a style=\"font-weight: bold;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/resources/PDF/Interview%20Questions%20for%20Teachers.pdf\">Protocol for Interviewing Faculty Regarding Critical Thinking</a>: </strong>provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, critical thinking is being taught at a college or university (Can be adapted for High School).&nbsp;Short Answer</li>\r\n<li><strong>Foundation for Critical Thinking <a style=\"font-weight: bold;\" href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/resources/PDF/Interview%20Questions%20for%20Students.pdf\">Protocol for Interviewing Students Regarding Critical Thinking</a>:</strong> provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, students are learning to think critically at a college or university (Can be adapted for High School).&nbsp;Short Answer.&nbsp;</li>\r\n<li><strong><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/files/Criteria%20for%20CT%20Assignments.doc\">Criteria for critical thinking assignments.</a></strong>&nbsp; Can be used by faculty in designing classroom assignments or by administrators in assessing the extent to which faculty are fostering critical thinking.<a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/files/Critical%20Thinking%20Grid.doc\"><br /> </a></li>\r\n<li><strong><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/files/Critical%20Thinking%20Grid.doc\">Rubrics for assessing student reasoning abilities</a>.</strong> A useful tool in assessing the extent to which students are reasoning well through course content. &nbsp; <span style=\"font-family: Arial;\"><span style=\"font-family: Arial;\"><br /> </span></span></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n<p>All of the above assessment instruments can be used as part of pre- and post- assessment strategies to gauge development over various time periods.</p>\r\n<p><br style=\"clear: both;\" /></p>","public_access":"1","public_downloads":"1","sku":"","files":[{"id":754,"filename":"data/pages/25/5d47996f9e66870c2e26307fc3feeb0a57d84a8f55f34.pdf","realfilename":"data/pages/25/5d47996f9e66870c2e26307fc3feeb0a57d84a8f55f34.pdf","title":"White Paper Assessment","order":0},{"id":755,"filename":"data/pages/0/f1932cf866b37b955d26368a3c8a22dc57d84a8f56ed3.doc","realfilename":"data/pages/0/f1932cf866b37b955d26368a3c8a22dc57d84a8f56ed3.doc","title":"Course_Evaluation_Form","order":1},{"id":756,"filename":"data/pages/18/418336441cd992e6f8c65c4ded7dbe2f57d84a8f579bc.doc","realfilename":"data/pages/18/418336441cd992e6f8c65c4ded7dbe2f57d84a8f579bc.doc","title":"Criteria for CT Assignments","order":2},{"id":757,"filename":"data/pages/75/70bf72d07d92201e3bb641a29070b28257d84a8f5849b.doc","realfilename":"data/pages/75/70bf72d07d92201e3bb641a29070b28257d84a8f5849b.doc","title":"Critical Thinking Grid","order":3},{"id":758,"filename":"data/pages/89/70c24f2faf54b6994d9f963f3b97cb6057d84a8f58ebe.pdf","realfilename":"data/pages/89/70c24f2faf54b6994d9f963f3b97cb6057d84a8f58ebe.pdf","title":"Interview Questions for Teachers","order":4}],"images":[]}

Consequential Validity


All of the above assessment instruments, when used appropriately and graded accurately, should lead to a high degree of consequential validity. In other words, the use of the instruments should cause teachers to teach in such a way as to foster critical thinking in their various subjects. In other words, for students to perform well on the various instruments, teachers will need to design instruction so that students can perform well on them. Students cannot become skilled in critical thinking without learning (first) the concepts and principles that underlie critical thinking and (second) applying them in a variety of forms of thinking: historical thinking, sociological thinking, biological thinking, etc. Students cannot become skilled in analyzing and assessing reasoning without practice in it. However, when they have routine practice in paraphrasing, summariz­ing, analyzing, and assessing, they will develop skills of mind requisite to the art of thinking well within any subject or discipline, not to mention thinking well within the various domains of human life.

{"id":401,"title":"Consequential Validity","author":"","content":"&lt;p&gt;&lt;br /&gt; All of the above assessment instruments, when used appropriately and graded accurately, should lead to a high degree of consequential validity. In other words, the use of the instruments should cause teachers to teach in such a way as to foster critical thinking in their various subjects. In other words, for students to perform well on the various instruments, teachers will need to design instruction so that students can perform well on them. Students cannot become skilled in critical thinking without learning (first) the concepts and principles that underlie critical thinking and (second) applying them in a variety of forms of thinking: historical thinking, sociological thinking, biological thinking, etc. Students cannot become skilled in analyzing and assessing reasoning without practice in it. However, when they have routine practice in paraphrasing, summariz&amp;shy;ing, analyzing, and assessing, they will develop skills of mind requisite to the art of thinking well within any subject or discipline, not to mention thinking well within the various domains of human life.&lt;br style=\"clear: both;\" /&gt;&lt;/p&gt;","public_access":"1","public_downloads":"1","sku":"","files":{},"images":{}}




The Center conducts advanced research and disseminates information on critical thinking.

Each year it sponsors an annual International Conference on Critical Thinking and Educational Reform. It has worked with the College Board, the National Education Association, the U.S. Department of Education, as well as numerous colleges, universities, and school districts to facilitate the implementation of critical thinking instruction focused on intellectual standards.

Research in critical thinking demonstrates:
1.  that, for the most part, critical thinking is not presently being effectively taught at the high school, college and university levels, and yet
2.  it is possible to do so.

To assess students' understanding of critical thinking, we recommend use of the International Critical Thinking Test as well as the Critical Thinking Interview Profile for College Students. To assess faculty understanding of critical thinking and its importance to instruction, we recommend the Critical Thinking Interview Profile For Teachers and Faculty. By registering as a member of the community, you will have access to streaming video, which includes a sample student interview with Dr. Richard Paul and Rush Cosgrove.

RESEARCH TITLES:

 

 

by Dr. Richard Paul

Dissertation submitted to the University of California at Santa Barbara in partial fulfillment for the degree of Ph.D. in Philosophy

 

View Abstract - View Full Dissertation (Adobe Acrobat PDF)

 


Logic as Theory of Validation: An Essay in Philosophical Logic


Critical Thinking in the Oxford Tutorial: A Call for an Explicit and Systematic Approach

 

by Rush Cosgrove

A research study focused on the extent to which the Oxford Tutorial promotes critical thinking

View Abstract - View Full Article


Critical Thinking Instruction in Selected Greater Los Angeles Area High Schools

 

by Paul Everett Thomas

A dissertation Submitted to the School of Education and Behavioral Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the degree Doctor of Education (May, 1999)

 

View Abstract - View Full Dissertation (Adobe Acrobat PDF)

 

 


Effect of a Model for Critical Thinking on Student Achievement in Primary Source Document Analysis

and Interpretation, Argumentative Reasoning, Critical Thinking Dispositions and History Content
in a Community College History Course

Abstract of the Study, conducted by Jenny Reed, in partial fulfillment for her dissertation (October 26, 1998)

View Abstract  -  View Full Dissertation (Adobe Acrobat PDF)

 

 


The Effect of Richard Paul's Universal Elements and Standards of Reasoning on Twelfth Grade Composition

A Research Proposal Presented to the Faculty Of the School
of Education Alliant International University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Master of Arts in Education: Teaching

Study conducted by J. Stephen Scanlan, San Diego (2006)

View Abstract  -   View Full Dissertation (Adobe Acrobat PDF)

 

 


Study of 38 Public Universities and 28 Private Universities

To Determine Faculty Emphasis on Critical Thinking In Instruction

Principal Researchers: Dr. Richard Paul, Dr. Linda Elder, and Dr. Ted Bartell

View Abstract   -   View the full study

 

 


Substantive Critical Thinking as Developed by the Foundation for Critical Thinking Proves Effective in Raising SAT and ACT Test Scores at West Side High School:  Staff Development Program Utilizes Critical Thinking Instruction to Improve Student Performance on ACT and SAT Tests, and in Critical Reading, Writing and Math


Dr.John Crook, West Side High School Principal

View the Report

 


Teaching Critical Thinking Skills to Fourth Grade Students Identified as Gifted and Talented


by Debra Connerly

Graceland University - Cedar Rapids, Iowa - December 2006

View the Report

 

 


The Loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia: Portaging Leadership Lessons with a Critical Thinking Model

by Rob Niewoehner, Ph.D. U.S. Navy

  U.S. Naval Academy -  Annapolis, MD - March 2009
View the Report

 

 


Law School Academic Support Professionals' Perceptions about Development of Students' Critical THinking

by Brett A. Brosseit, Ph.D.

  Ave Maria School of Law - Naples, FL - 2015
View the Dissertation

 

 


 

{"id":"406","title":"RESEARCH TITLES:","author":"","content":"<p style=\"text-align: center;\"><span style=\"text-decoration: underline; color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: medium; font-variant: small-caps;\">&nbsp;</span></p>\r\n<div style=\"text-align: center;\">\r\n<div style=\"text-align: center;\">\r\n<div><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><span style=\"font-size: medium;\"> \r\n<hr />\r\n</span></span>\r\n<p><strong style=\"font-size: medium; color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-variant: small-caps;\">Logic as Theory of Validation: An Essay in Philosophical Logic</strong></p>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>\r\n<div style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</div>\r\n<div style=\"text-align: center;\">by Dr. Richard Paul<br /> <br /></div>\r\nDissertation submitted to the University of California at Santa Barbara in partial fulfillment for the degree of Ph.D. in Philosophy\r\n<div style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</div>\r\n<p style=\"font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; color: #000000; margin-left: 0px; margin-top: 0px; font-weight: normal; text-align: center;\"><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/files/Abstract%20from%20Dr.%20Richard%20Paul%27s%20dissertation.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"><span style=\"color: #0000cc;\"><span><span style=\"text-decoration: underline;\">View Abstract</span></span></span></a>&nbsp;-&nbsp;<a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/files/Dissertation.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"><span style=\"color: #0000cc;\"><span><span style=\"text-decoration: underline;\">View Full Dissertation (Adobe Acrobat PDF)</span></span></span></a></p>\r\n<p style=\"font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; color: #000000; margin-left: 0px; margin-top: 0px; font-weight: normal; text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</p>\r\n<p style=\"font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; color: #000000; margin-left: 0px; margin-top: 0px; font-weight: normal; text-align: center;\"><span style=\"color: #0000cc;\"><span><span style=\"text-decoration: underline;\"><br /></span></span></span></p>\r\n</div>\r\n<div style=\"text-align: center;\">\r\n<hr />\r\n<div>\r\n<div><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><span style=\"font-size: medium;\"><strong>Critical Thinking in the Oxford Tutorial: A Call for an Explicit and Systematic Approach</strong></span><br /> </span></div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>\r\n<div>by Rush Cosgrove</div>\r\n<div>A research study focused on the extent to which the Oxford Tutorial promotes critical thinking</div>\r\n<div><strong><br /></strong></div>\r\n<div><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/critical-thinking-in-the-oxford-tutorial-a-call-for-an-expli/1018\" target=\"_blank\">View Abstract</a> - <a href=\"http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07294360.2010.487259\" target=\"_blank\">View Full Article<br /></a></div>\r\n<hr />\r\n</div>\r\n<div style=\"text-align: center;\"><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><span style=\"font-size: medium;\"><strong>Critical Thinking Instruction in Selected Greater Los Angeles Area High Schools</strong></span><br /> </span></div>\r\n<div style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</div>\r\n<div style=\"text-align: center;\">by Paul Everett Thomas</div>\r\n<div style=\"text-align: center;\">A dissertation Submitted to the School of Education and Behavioral Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements</div>\r\n<div style=\"text-align: center;\">for the degree Doctor of Education (May, 1999)<strong><br /> </strong></div>\r\n<div style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</div>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\"><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/research/Abstract-PETHOMAS.cfm\" target=\"_blank\">View Abstract</a> - <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/files/Azusa%20Pacific%20University_opt.pdf\" target=\"_blank\">View Full Dissertation (Adobe Acrobat PDF)</a></p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</p>\r\n<hr />\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\"><strong style=\"font-size: medium;\"><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">Effect of a Model for Critical Thinking on Student Achievement in Primary Source Document Analysis</span></strong></p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\"><span style=\"font-size: medium;\"><strong> <span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">and Interpretation, Argumentative Reasoning, Critical Thinking Dispositions and History Content</span></strong></span><br /><span style=\"font-size: medium;\"><strong> <span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\">in a Community College History Course</span></strong></span><br /> <br /> Abstract of the Study, conducted by Jenny Reed, in partial fulfillment for her dissertation (October 26, 1998)<br /> <br /> <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/research/Abstract-JREED.cfm\">View Abstract</a>&nbsp; -&nbsp; <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/resources/JReed-Dissertation.pdf\">View Full Dissertation (Adobe Acrobat PDF)</a></p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</p>\r\n<hr />\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\"><strong style=\"font-size: medium; color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-variant: small-caps;\">The Effect of Richard Paul's Universal Elements and Standards of Reasoning on Twelfth Grade Composition</strong></p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\"><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><span style=\"font-size: medium;\"><strong> A Research Proposal Presented to the Faculty Of the School</strong></span><br /><span style=\"font-size: medium;\"><strong> of Education Alliant International University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the</strong></span><br /><span style=\"font-size: medium;\"><strong> Degree of Master of Arts in Education: Teaching</strong></span><br /> <br /> </span>Study conducted by J. Stephen Scanlan, San Diego (2006)<br /> <br /> <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/research/Abstract-JSCANLAN.cfm\">View Abstract</a>&nbsp; - &nbsp; <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/resources/SScanlan.pdf\">View Full Dissertation (Adobe Acrobat PDF)</a></p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</p>\r\n<hr />\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\"><strong style=\"font-size: medium; color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-variant: small-caps;\">Study of 38 Public Universities and 28 Private Universities</strong></p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\"><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><span style=\"font-size: medium;\"><strong> To Determine Faculty Emphasis on Critical Thinking In Instruction</strong></span><br /> <br /> </span></p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\">Principal Researchers: Dr. Richard Paul, Dr. Linda Elder, and Dr. Ted Bartell</p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\"><a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/research/Abstract-RPAUL-38public.cfm\">View Abstract</a>&nbsp;&nbsp; - &nbsp; <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/store/products/california-teacher-preparation-for-instruction-in-critical-thinking/147\">View the full study</a></p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</p>\r\n<hr />\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\"><strong style=\"font-size: medium; color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-variant: small-caps;\">Substantive Critical Thinking as Developed by the Foundation for Critical Thinking Proves Effective in Raising SAT and ACT Test Scores at West Side High School:&nbsp; Staff Development Program Utilizes Critical Thinking Instruction to Improve Student Performance on ACT and SAT Tests, and in Critical Reading, Writing and Math</strong></p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\"><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps; color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"> <br /> </span><span style=\"font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;\"><span lang=\"en-us\">Dr.</span><span lang=\"en-us\"> </span><span lang=\"en-us\">John Crook, West Side High School Principal</span></span><strong><span lang=\"en-us\"><span style=\"font-family: Arial;\"><br /> <br /> <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/research/raising_SAT_and_ACT_Scores.cfm\">View the Report</a></span></span></strong></p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\"><strong><span lang=\"en-us\"><span style=\"font-family: Arial;\"><br /></span></span></strong></p>\r\n<hr />\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\"><strong style=\"font-size: medium; color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-variant: small-caps;\">Teaching Critical Thinking Skills to Fourth Grade Students Identified as Gifted and Talented</strong></p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\"><br /> by Debra Connerly<br /> <br /> Graceland University - Cedar Rapids, Iowa - December 2006<br /> <br /> <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/research/Debra_Connerly_study.cfm\">View the Report</a></p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</p>\r\n<hr />\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\"><strong style=\"font-size: medium; color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-variant: small-caps;\">The Loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia: Portaging Leadership Lessons with a Critical Thinking Model</strong></p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\">by Rob Niewoehner, Ph.D. U.S. Navy<br /> <br />&nbsp; U.S. Naval Academy -&nbsp;<span class=\"kno-fv\"><span class=\"kno-fv-vq fl\"> Annapolis, MD</span></span> - March 2009<br /> <a href=\"http://www.criticalthinking.org/articles/engineering-reasoning.cfm\">View the Report</a></p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</p>\r\n<hr />\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\"><strong style=\"font-size: medium; color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-variant: small-caps;\">Law School Academic Support Professionals' Perceptions about Development of Students' Critical THinking<br /></strong></p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\">by Brett A. Brosseit, Ph.D.<br /> <br />&nbsp; Ave Maria School of Law - <span class=\"kno-fv\"><span class=\"kno-fv-vq fl\">Naples, FL</span></span> - 2015<br /> <a href=\"https://www.criticalthinking.org/data/pages/57/24101cb16ee724d6172f6544c61c2be75a6688fb017ca.pdf\">View the Dissertation</a></p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</p>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</p>\r\n<hr />\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\">&nbsp;</p>\r\n<div id=\"cke_pastebin\" style=\"text-align: center;\">\r\n<div style=\"text-align: center;\"><span style=\"color: #0000ff;\"><br /> </span><span style=\"color: #0044aa; font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;\"><span style=\"font-variant: small-caps;\"><br /> </span></span></div>\r\n</div>\r\n<p style=\"text-align: center;\"><br style=\"clear: both;\" /></p>","public_access":"1","public_downloads":"1","sku":"","files":[],"images":[]}



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