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Goal Attainment Theory Essay


Identification details

Mr. Sy is 74yrs married, male, studied up to 7th Std is doing Business, a practicing Muslim, got admitted in L3 ward of ...Hospital on 27/03/08 with a diagnosis of indirect inguinal hernia underwent herniorraphy with prolene mesh done on 30/03/08.

Present History of Illness Abdominal swelling for 35 years with difficulty in activities and occasional abdominal pain. He has hypertension for seven years. The swelling remained stable with  uncomplicated progress, getting increasing size when standing for long and reducible on applying pressure No h/o severe pain  but increasing size for the last few years Relived after pressing the swelling back to position and on taking rest and applying pressure.

Past health history Patient underwent cataract surgery about 10 years back On treatment for hypertension No other significant illness

Family History Patient’s next elder brother and next younger brother had inguinal hernia and were operated Elder brother underwent 3 surgeries for hernia

Socioeconomic Status High economic status >Rs.20000/- per month.

Life Style Non vegetarian No habit of smoking or alcoholism. Aware about health care facilities

Physical examination Alert, conscious and oriented Moderately built, adequate nourishment, with BMI of 22 Vital signs – normal except BP 140/90 mmHg General head-to-foot examination reveals normal finding except for the vision difficulty of the right eye and healing surgical wound on the left inguinal region. Subjective problems  Pain at the surgical wound site Lack of bowel movement for 2 days Review of relevant systems

GI systemInspection: Healing wound, No infection, No redness, No swelling.

  • Auscultation: Normal bowel sounds

  • Palpation No pain at the site, Normal abdominal organs

  • Percussion: No dull sound suggesting fluid collection or ascitis

Genito-Urinary system

  • Inspection: Testicles in position, No infection, No swelling or enlargement.

  • Palpation No c/o pain,No prostate enlargement

  • Percussion  No fluid collection in scrotum

  • Auscultation Normal Bowel sounds Laboratory


  • FBS - 91 mg/dl

  • Na(130-143mEq/dl) - 134 mEq / dl

  • K+ (3.5-5 mg/dl) - 3.5 mEq / dl

  • Urea(8-35mg/dl)-29 mg / dl

  • Sr. Cr (0.6-1.6 mg/ dl)- <1 mg/ dl

  • Other investigations

  • Electro cardio gram -Ant. Fascicular block Left atrial enlargement and normal axis

Imogene King’s Goal Attainment Theory Essay

Nursing theory gives a point from which to define the what, who and when in nursing and further determine the goals and boundaries in the involved therapeutic activities. This would be developed to describe the nursing phenomenon, including the process, event or occurrence involved (Parker & Smith, 2010). Even though different theories relatively address specific and solid phenomena, their scope could vary. As such, grand and middle-range theories address specific nursing issues but cover varied scopes. This paper evaluates a middle-range theory of goal attainment put forth by a theorist, Imogene King. The Goal Attainment Theory is distinct and was used by King to describe interpersonal and dynamic relationship aimed at attaining patient’s life goals hence a critical one for advancement in nursing education and practice.
Chinn and Kramer (2011) defines Middle-range theory as the relative classification for theory that embodies concepts, relationships, and purposes that reflect limited aspects of broad phenomenon. It is known to address more concrete and focused phenomena than grand theory. According to Smith and Liehr (2014), the theories under this portfolio have predictions, explanations and descriptions responding to questions on nursing phenomena but do not cover the concerned discipline on full range. Derived in 1981, the Theory of Goal Attainment sought to answer the question of what the nature of nursing is. King gave the answer to this as “the way in which nurses, in their role, do with and for individuals that differentiates nursing from other professionals” (Parker & Smith, 2010, 148). This framework bases on the assumption of human beings as the focus of nursing. Nursing aims at promoting, maintaining and restoring health; caring for the injured or the sick; and caring for the dying. According to George (2002), this is an evolution from Von Bertalanffly’s General Systems Theory which had its components as goal, structure, resources, functions and decision making. King went further to argue on the involvement of human beings, communities and families in the nursing domain as a framework within which nurses transact in multiple environments with their goal focused on health. Stress, roles, time and space are factors which King observed could affect the attainment of these goals. This model encompasses three interacting systems; personal system made up of growth and development, perception, body image, time and space; interpersonal system involving communication, interaction, transaction, stress and roles; and the social system including organization, power, authority, decision-making and status.
Therefore, the take home points from King’s theory encompass the fact that the goal of nursing is human care. Transaction would only occur under a condition of perceptual interaction accuracy in nurse-client interactions. An interaction between the nurse and client results in attainment of nursing goals. A conflict in this relationship results...

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