Essay On Different Types Of Houses In India
Housing in India varies from palaces of erstwhile maharajas to modern apartment buildings in big cities to tiny huts in far-flung villages. There has been tremendous growth in India's housing sector as incomes have risen.
With modernization there is a growing number of nuclear families, in which each couple occupies its own house after marriage, in urban areas. It is still rare, albeit not impossible, amongst traditional communities for senior citizens to live alone. It is extremely rare even in urban areas for couples to live together before marriage. Some single young adults live in same-sex dormitories or in shared accommodation during college and the early working years.
The life-style in villages takes advantage of the warm weather. Many families bathe outdoors in rivers and ponds. Most of the day is spent outdoors around or near the house. Cooking is conducted outdoors in earthen stoves powered by organic fuels or in modern kerosene stoves. Water is obtained from hand-drawn wells. Men perform their ablutions in designated spots throughout the day; Visitors to villages may find residents squatting down for an afternoon card game under trees or while sitting on charpois (traditional hand-made beds) brought outside during the day. Consequently, they use their indoor space primarily to sleep, change and, in electrified homes, to watch TV.
Low income housing
Further information: Poverty in India and Illegal housing in India
According to the Times of India, "a majority of Indians have per capita space equivalent to or less than a 10 feet x 10 feet room for their living, sleeping, cooking, washing and toilet needs." The average is 103 sq ft per person in rural areas and 117 sq ft per person in urban areas.
44 percent of rural households have access to electricity. Although cities have better facilities than villages, except for the major metros, no city in India provides full-day water supply.
States such as Gujarat,Madhya Pradesh and others provides continuous power supply. Some 400 million Indians do not have access to a proper toilet and the situation is even worse in slums across Indian cities.
The national and state governments are running programs, some funded by the World Bank, to improve conditions. Bharat Nirman is targeting clean water, the Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission is building public toilets and sewage systems. The private sector, including companies such as Tata, have started to enter the low-income residential projects.
In 2013, the Government of India and National Housing Bank borrowed US $100 million to fund their Low Income Housing Finance project. The money will be loaned to low income residents who wish to purchase or renovate a home.
See also: List of most populous cities in India
Mumbai experiences similar urbanisation challenges as other fast growing cities in developing countries: wide disparities in housing between the affluent, middle-income and low-income segments of the population.
Highly desirable neighborhoods such as Colaba, Malabar Hill, Marine Drive, Bandra and Juhu house professionals, industrialists, Bollywood movie stars and expatriates. Up-scale flats have 3 or more bedrooms, ocean views, tasteful interior decoration, parking for luxury cars and sleeping quarters for maids and cooks. Only a tiny fraction of people in Mumbai live in these luxury high-rises. In 2007, Mumbai condominiums were the priciest in the developing world at around US$9,000 to US$10,200 per square metre. Mumbai has more than 1,500 high rise buildings, many of which are just planned, but some already constructed or under construction.
Despite the recent economic growth, there is still vast poverty, unemployment and therefore poor housing conditions for a huge section of the population. With available space at a premium, working-class Mumbai residents often reside in cramped and poor quality, yet relatively expensive housing, usually far from workplaces. Despite this, Mumbai's economic boom continues to attract migrants in search of opportunities from across the country. The number of migrants to Mumbai from outside Maharashtra during the 1991–2001 decade was 1.12 million, which amounted to 54.8% of the net addition to the population of Mumbai.
Over 9 million people, over 60% of the population of Mumbai, live in informal housing or slums, yet they cover only 6–8% of the city's land area. Slum growth rate in Mumbai is greater than the general urban growth rate. Financial Times writes that "Dharavi is the grand panjandrum of the Mumbai slums".Dharavi, Asia's second largest slum is located in central Mumbai and houses over 1 million people. Slums are a growing tourist attraction in Mumbai.
Most of the remaining live in chawls and on footpaths. Chawls are a quintessentially Mumbai phenomenon of multi-storied terrible quality tenements, typically a bit higher quality than slums. 80 per cent of chawls have only one room.Pavement dwellers refers to Mumbai dwellings built on the footpaths/pavements of city streets.
With rising incomes, many residents of slums and chawls now have modern amenities such as mobile phones, access to electricity, often illegally, and television.
Rent control laws have helped to create a housing shortage. Most of the investors are looking to invest in ongoing real estate projects to get maximum returns.
Delhi has witnessed rapid suburban growth over the past decade. South Delhi, Gurgaon and Noida have added thousands of apartment buildings, Affordable Homes, shopping centres and highways. New Delhi's famous Lutyens bungalows house the prime minister, members of his cabinet, top political and government leaders, military officials, senior judges and top bureaucrats. New Delhi is also home to thousands of diplomatic staff of foreign countries and the United Nations. With India's growth, Delhi has developed into a business center, especially for outsourcing, IT consultancy, high-tech, research, education and health care services. Employees of these institutions are the source of growing demand for high-end housing provided by major builders such as DLF.
Roughly 18.7% of Delhi's population lives in slums, according to 2001 government statistics.
In the 1990s the information technology boom hit Bangalore. Y2K projects in America's IT industry resulted in shortages for skilled computer scientists and systems programmers. Bangalore has transformed into the Silicon Valley of India as over 500,000 well-paying jobs for young college graduates were created. The demographics of the city changed, new high-rise were built, campus-style office parks sprouted, vast shopping centers started to thrive, streets became crowded with new cars and gated expatriate housing estates emerged .
Roughly 3% of Bangalore's population lives in slums.
The most sought-after neighbourhoods of Calcutta are generally centered around Park Street, Camac Street, Lower Circular Road, Sarat Bose Road, Salt Lake, Ballygunge, Anwar Shah Road, Chowringhee and Golf Green. A recent building boom has converted sprawling British-era bungalows into high-rise condominiums and apartment-buildings with modern amenities. Kolkata currently has the second most number of highrises and tall buildings in the country, second only to Mumbai. The highest of them is at 50 floors (under construction). New suburbs are constantly being developed in Rajarhat and along the Eastern Metropolitan Bypass. Once completed, these suburbs shall consist partially of major condominiums, complete with penthouses, many designed primarily for NRIs, expats and wealthier residents. Avani is also a major builder. The tallest buildings in the city, The South City Towers and Urbana towers, are also condominiums.
North Calcutta contains mansions built in the early 20th century during Calcutta's heyday as capital of British India, which covered all of South Asia plus Burma and Aden. These buildings include a courtyard surrounded by balconies, large rooms with tall ceilings, marble floors, tall pillars and crumbling artwork. Most of them are poorly maintained. The Marble Palace and other buildings received "heritage status" which provides them municipal funds and incentives to repair and restore. These mansions serve as reminder of the era of Bengali Renaissance when Tagore's music and dance graced the living rooms of wealthy Bengali merchants.
Roughly, 5% of the population live in slums. Although the number of slums are less than Mumbai, they are scattered all over Kolkata in between affluent areas giving the city a rustic and poverty driven look.
In Hyderabad, housing in modern ages in the 21st century is more modernized and developed than it has been in the past. The housing sector in Hyderabad has relatively sophisticated infrastructure. and is suitable for gated communities and villas, as well as higher-standard flats and condominiums. Hyderabad is home to several skyscrapers, including The Botanika, Lodha Belezza, etc. Many residential infrastructure companies are well-established in Hyderabad.
See also: Licence Raj, Mafia Raj, and Corruption in India
In general India's crime rates trails those of other developing countries. There is a large developed housing market with major builders and promoters. Some municipal and other government officials, elected politicians, real estate developers and a few law enforcement officials, acquire, develop and sell land in illegal ways. Sometimes, government land or land ostensibly acquired for some legitimate government purpose is then handed over to real estate developers who build commercial and residential properties and sell them in the open market, with the connivance of a small section of the administrative and police officials. In one set of allegations in Karnataka, a lake was filled in and government buildings torn down after illegal transfers to a developer by mafia-connected officials.Eminent domain laws, intended to procure private land at relatively low prices for public benefit or redistribution to poorer people under social justice programs, are abused to pressure existing landholders to sell land to a government entity, which transfers the land to developers at those low prices, and who in turn sell it back on the market at much higher prices.
Corruption is sometimes a reaction to well-meaning social activists' opposition to development. Environmentalists, "not in my backyard" activists and court cases slow down the ability to expand housing. The computerization of records relating to the classification of tracts and land ownership is a key tool in countering the illegal activities of land mafias, since it creates transparency on all information relating to a given parcel of land. This approach has been effective in Bangalore, but efforts to extend it elsewhere have sometimes met with strong resistance by land mafias, manifesting itself as bureaucratic inaction.
Indian property bubble
Main article: Indian property bubble
The Indian property bubble refers to the concern expressed by some Indian economists that housing market in some major Indian cities may be in a bubble. The real estate sector is thought to be collapsing due to increasing costs of financing. Real estate projects in India take a long time to complete due to a complicated and corrupt regulatory mechanism. Several of the India's publicly traded real estate firms are in debt. The inventory of unsold real estate assets is growing and it is expected the market will undergo price corrections. According to Mumbai-based market research agency, Liases Foras, 30% of the transaction in the real estate sector is done with black money.
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- ^K.R. Gupta and J.R. Gupta, "Indian Economy, Vol# 2", Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 2008, ISBN 81-269-0926-9. Snippet: ... the land market already stands subverted and an active land mafia has already been created ...
- ^"India after busting land mafia organised crime involving former government officials and apartment developers". India Daily. 1 August 2005. Archived from the original on 22 August 2007. Retrieved 30 October 2008. Snippet: ... Low priced subsidised land is being illegally developed ... permits are obtained illegally through a network of mafia style operators that involved the under world, former Indian Administrative Service officers and even the cops ... alleged misappropriation of land in the name of CGHS and selling them at very high rates after construction of flats ...
- ^"Land mafia buries lake, encroaches govt land". Deccan Herald. 10 October 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-04-16. Retrieved 2008-10-30. Snippet: ... The watershed department had built a check dam at a cost of Rs 1.5 lakh in 2006 to improve the groundwater level. But the land mafia has taken things into its own hands and got it covered ...
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- ^Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Narayana Madhava Ghatate, "Decisive Days", Shipra Publications, 1999. Snippet: ... In villages on the outskirts of the cities, land is being grabbed by force by the lathi-wielding miscreants. This land is public land. Skyscrapers are being built ...
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- ^"A Housing Slump in India". The New York Times. 10 September 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
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“Home is where the heart is.”
There are many types of buildings people from all over the world sleep in every night. Some live in big, tall modern buildings. Others sleep in a home with wheels under it.
Here are 31 house types from all over the World with explanation and each used in an example sentence. What kind of building do you live in? Leave it in the comment section below.
An apartment is an American term for a home where you live (British English: flat) in a separate home within a large building where others also have their own home.
This style of building is often called an apartment block. Or, if it’s very large, a skyscraper.
Apartment blocks are normally owned by a single company or developer and each apartment is rented by the person living there.
- Young professionals like apartments because they’re cheaper than detached houses.
- The apartment looked so small now that she was all grown up.
A bungalow is a low-built one story house. It’s often small in size. Bungalows often have a veranda (porch), at the front and or back, which is a covered area to sit.
- I love living in my bungalow I never have to walk up or down stairs.
- Center Parks is a resort where families stay in bungalows instead of hotel rooms.
A caravan is a vehicle, which can be pulled behind a car or truck, which is made for living in. A caravan is also commonly called a trailer.
Caravans are often used for short term stay, for example when going on holiday.
- The circus clown is in his caravan, putting on makeup for tonight’s show.
- Many retirees are selling their homes and living in caravans due to rising living costs.
Castles are large and often old buildings. Hundreds of years ago, many kings and queens would live in castles.
Castles are made with thick stone walls to protect the people living there. They’re also sometimes surrounded by a circle of water, called a moat.
- Switzerland is home to some of the world’s most beautiful castles.
- The Disney Castle at Disneyland is visited by over 1 million people per year.
A condominium is a style of an apartment which is individually owned. Normally by the person living there, although you can rent from the condo owner.
Each condo owner is allowed to buy and sell their own condo and own a small percentage rights to the land and common areas, like the gym or tennis court.
This is different from an apartment where the entire building is owned by one person or company.
- Condominiums are very popular in Bangkok where houses are too expensive to buy.
- Some people love living in condos because they can live close to their work.
Cottages are small old-fashioned houses often found in the countryside. England style cottages are world famous for their signature look. They are often made of stone or brick with a straw or thatched roof.
- Little Red Riding Hood’s grandmother lived in a little cottage near the forest.
- Look! There’s smoke coming out of that cottage’s Someone’s home.
Dormitories are similar to apartments and common on college and university campuses. Here they are used by students who want to live close to school.
Dormitories are large buildings with many individual rooms called dorm rooms. People often share rooms with other people and share bathroom and kitchens with many other dorm rooms.
- My brother loved living in the dormitory because of all the parties they had.
- Excuse me, Professor, I forgot my calculator in my dorm May I go get it?
A duplex is a kind of house where two homes are built under one roof. It is similar to a semi-detached house because duplexes are attached to another person’s house on one side but not on both sides.
Some duplexes used to be one house but were split into two homes.
- Duplexes are often cheaper than single family homes because they cost less to build.
- When living in a duplex, you have to be careful not to make too much noise.
A farm house is what it sounds like. A house on a farm. Farm houses are one story low built houses.
They are traditionally built far away from the city, on large areas of land used for farming or raising animals.
- John dreamed of leaving the city to live in a farmhouse in the countryside.
- Timmy, run back to the farmhouse and ask mum for a glass of water please.
A flat is the British English version of an apartment. See apartment for more details.
- Their brand new flat in London had a beautiful view of Big Ben and London Bridge.
- Did you hear the story of the whole block of flats in China that fell over?
A hotel is a place where you pay to sleep for a short period of time when you’re on holiday or traveling for work.
A hotel has many rooms which have their own bedroom and bathroom. Hilton, Hyatt, and Marriott are all famous hotels seen around the world.
- Google pays for their staff’s hotel room and meals when they have to travel.
- The Hyatt hotel has the best buffet lunch in town. Would you like to go?
A houseboat is a type of floating building where people live. As the name suggests, they’re part house, part boat.
There are different kinds of houseboat. Some look like a boat that has room to sleep.
Whereas others are square shaped and simply look like floating houses.
- Have you ever watched the Danish YouTuber who lives on a houseboat?
- Wouldn’t you get seasick living on a houseboat?
A hut is a very simple one story house, often built with cheap materials or natural materials like mud.
These kinds of homes have been used for thousands of years by our ancestors.
They’re still seen today in poor places and regions which have not changed their ways in many generations.
- In the old days, the chief’s hut would be at the center or all the others.
- There’s a great video online where a guy builds a mud hut from start to finish.
Igloos are buildings made out of ice and snow. They have a recognizable round dome like shape.
Igloos keep the people inside them warm by using the people’s body heat to warm the air inside the ice building.
- Pete the Penguin lived in an igloo with his parents and brother.
- Some igloos can last for over 100 years in the right weather conditions.
A lighthouse is a tall building near the ocean with a huge light on its top to warn boats coming too close to the land at night.
- Many captains and their crew’s lives have been saved by
- The lighthouse is painted white to reflect the most light at night.
A small building near the gates of a large estate or piece of land, often used as a guard’s house. Presently, lodges are also halls where some groups go to meet.
- Stephenson met the other Free Masons in secrecy at the local lodge.
- The guard was sitting at his station in the lodge when he heard a strange noise.
17. Log Cabin
These buildings are small structures found in the forests or woods. They’re made almost completely out of wood, or large logs.
A “log” is a round piece of wood cut right from a tree. People also use logs to keep their home warm in a fireplace.
- Granddad used to have a log cabin he would stay in when he would go hunting.
- I wonder how many log cabins burn down every year because of their fireplace?
A big country house with a lot of land. They are an old style house, normally owned by wealthy families. Manors have very large and beautiful gardens.
- Lord of Chester lived in a large manor that had been in his family for generations.
- There was a murder in the old Hill State manor last night.
A large and impressive house. Similar to a manor. However, manors are generally old and in the country.
In contrast, mansions can be anywhere. Mansions can be old, or new. Most famous actors and singers live in mansions.
- Hollywood is famous around the world for its mansions and movie stars.
- Robert Di Niro just sold his mansion for a huge sum of $22 million dollars.
A hotel located close to a major road and mostly used by travelers who wish to rest while making long road trips.
Motel comes from the words motor and hotel. On average motels are not as nice as most hotels and offer only basic services.
- The truck driver decided to pull over into a motel to rest for the night.
- I hate motels. I once found a rat in the ice machine at one of them.
A palace is the home of a country’s king or queen. Buckingham Palace is the very famous home of the Queen of England.
Palaces are generally very large and have many people working there to take care of the royal family.
- The changing of the guards at Buckingham Palace is a world famous tradition.
- The Queen likes to read the newspaper each morning in the Palace’s
22. Semi-detached House
Semi means half or partly. Detached means that it is not touching anything else.
A semi-detached house is a house that is touching another building on one of its sides but not on another.
- Johnny lived in a semi-detached house on Smith Street before moving to London.
- The semi-detached house on 5th avenue sold for $500k last weekend.
A shack is a small building often put together loosely with left-over or cheap materials. A shack is similar to a hut or cabin.
What makes a shack different is that it is often made with modern materials like wood and metal and generally not well built.
- They stepped into the dimly lit shack where a man sat cross-legged, head in hands.
- The slums in Rio are mostly shacks made from garbage and sheets of metal.
24. Single family home (Detached)
A single family home, often called a detached house, is an alone standing medium size house. There aren’t any other buildings touching a single family house.
Single family homes are most common outside of the city in areas called “suburbs”.
- The agent told me about a single family home for sale near the local school.
- This single family home is perfect for me and my family. We’ll take it!
A skyscraper is a very tall new style building. You will see many skyscrapers in nearly every city around the world.
They are made of glass and metal. Skyscrapers are used as office buildings or apartments.
- The tallest building in the world is a skyscraper called the Burj Khalifa.
- Skyscrapers are made to be flexible and move in the wind.
Teepees are the old style of house in which Native American Indians used to live. They were made with animal skins and sticks.
Whole towns of Indians would live in a small group of Teepees which could be taken apart and moved to new locations when the seasons changed.
- A whole family of Indians would live in one teepee together for safety and warmth.
- The chief and the soldier sat in the teepee, sharing a peace pipe.
A temporary shelter made from fabric. Most people use tents when they go camping and need to quickly set up a place to sleep that will protect them from the rain, wind and small animals overnight.
- A tent is a great way to stop bugs and spiders but it won’t stop a bear.
- The old tents used to be so hard to put up. Now all you have to do it push a button.
28. Terraced House
A terraced house is a tall but narrow house which is attached on both sides to another house. They are common in many European countries like England, Holland and Germany.
In those countries, whole streets of houses can all be connected to each other in a row.
- Sherlock Holmes famously lived in a terraced house at 221B Baker Street, London.
- Terraced houses were built closely together to share heat in the hash winter.
A townhouse is similar to a terraced house. Townhouses are houses built for inner-city living.
There are tall and narrow buildings. They don’t have a lot of land around them and often only have very small gardens at the back.
- Over 100 townhouses fell into the river when London Bridge collapsed in 1703.
- You can’t find a townhouse for under a million dollars in Sydney.
(See Caravan) A trailer is a small cabin with wheels. They can be pulled by trucks or other vehicles and often made from metal or fiberglass.
Trailers are commonly used by people who need to move from one place to another for short periods of time. For example, circus performers and actors who live on set.
- Amanda Lawson sat in her trailer practicing her lines for the next scene.
- In America people believe that people living in trailers are low class.
A treehouse is a structure built between the branches of a large tree. They are often seen as places for children to play.
But there are hotels around the world where you can sleep in a treehouse hotel room above the ground. Some old tribes also live in treehouses.
- Daddy built a treehouse for me when I was 6 years old. It’s still there today.
- Treehouse of horrors is my favorite Simpsons tradition.
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